This episode, Dr. Huberman discusses the hormones testosterone and estrogen and how they impact the brain, body, and behavior at ages after puberty. He also discusses how various behaviors such as exercise (resistance and endurance training) and sex or observing sex impact these hormones and their levels. He asks: “what specifically is it about such activities that impact testosterone and estrogen?”; the resounding theme is that when our nervous system is activated in particular ways, it drives our endocrine system and vascular system to activate or repress certain hormone networks in predictable ways. He also discusses peer-reviewed studies and protocols addressing (at a mechanistic level) how light, cold and heat and respiration (breathing) can positively or negatively impact testosterone and estrogen. And we discuss specific supplements and compounds that peer-reviewed studies illustrate can adjust testosterone and estrogen levels: by changing their binding to other proteins, by raising them directly, or by changing other hormones released from the brain and pituitary. Dr. Huberman discusses optimization in the normal reference ranges for these hormones, and discusses pheromones, apnea, menstrual cycles, menopause and andropause. As always, a mix of basic science, biological mechanisms and tools and protocols are discussed.
- An Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology, Fifth Edition by Nelson and Kriegsfeld