In this episode, Dr. Huberman discusses the science and practice of learning physical skills: what it involves at a biological level and what to focus on during skill learning at each stage to maximize learning speed and depth. He also describes what to do immediately after a training session (note: this is different than the optimal protocol for cognitive skill training) and as you progress to more advanced levels of performance. He also covers the science of skill-based visualization, which does have benefits, but only if done correctly and at the correct times. Dr. Huberman discusses auto-replay of skill learning in the brain during sleep and the value of adding in post-training ‘deliberately idle’ sessions. He covers how to immediately improve limb-range-of-motion by leveraging cerebellum function, error generation, optimal repetition numbers for learning and more. As always, scientific mechanisms, peer-reviewed studies and science-based protocols are discussed.